External Faculty and Staff Publications

The Return of the Generals? Civil-Military Relations in Latin America at Times of Pandemic

Publication Date:
10 December 2020
Language Availability:
English, Spanish
Author:
Roman Ortiz
Published By:
Elcano Royal Institute

Summary:
The recent warnings from politicians and academics about the re-emergence of Latin American military power as a threat to democracy are based on the expansion of armed missions in spheres such as the fight against drug trafficking and their role in crises such as the one that befell Bolivia. These concerns do not however reflect a reality in which armed forces have seen their resources dramatically reduced over recent decades and have come under the control of civilian governments. In reality the new role being played by the armed services has less to do with the growth in their political influence and more to do with the feeble efforts to modernise Latin America’s civilian administrations. This failure has made them a key tool for civilian governments wanting to react to a crisis, whether a public health emergency or an epidemic of crime. Under these circumstances, it is essential that the region’s governments strengthen the armed forces’ oversight and control mechanisms in order to be able to use their resources to tackle what promise to be years characterised by instability and violence in the region.

English translation available for download at https://bit.ly/384x1nP
Original Spanish language version available for download at https://bit.ly/3advvlT

The Rule of Law in Cyberspace: Current Affairs in Latin America and the Caribbean

Publication Date:
Fall 2020
Language Availability:
Spanish
Author:
Boris Saavedra
Published By:
University of the Americas - Puebla

Disrupting the Illicit Economy that Sustains the Maduro Regime

Publication Date:
2020 Special Issue #2
Language Availability:
Spanish
Author:
Celina Realuyo
Published By:
Revista Diálogo

Summary:
Nicolás Maduro and his cronies remain in control in Venezuela despite intense diplomatic pressure to move to a democratic transition, economic sanctions, and international recognition of Juan Guaidó as the acting president of Venezuela since January 23, 2019. The Maduro regime oppresses the population, has destroyed the legitimate economy, engages in massive corruption, and increasingly depends on the illicit economy to survive. Hyperinflation, food and medicine shortages, insecurity and economic ruin have created a humanitarian crisis that has forced over five million Venezuelans to flee the country. The United Nations estimates that 90 percent of Venezuelans are living in poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating the human tragedy in Venezuela, once the richest country in South America. The Maduro regime engages in various illicit activities including narcotics trafficking, illegal oil sales, and gold shipments. The regime also relies on Cuba, Russia, China, Iran, Turkey, and Colombian guerrilla members of the National Liberation Army (ELN, in Spanish) and dissidents of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC, in Spanish) to keep itself in power. The US government's "maximum pressure" campaign seeks to impede access to the illicit economy that the Maduro regime depends on. It includes extensive sanctions on the oil and gold sectors, the public indictment of Maduro and his associates on narcoterrorism charges, a $15 million bounty reward for Maduro’s arrest and conviction, and US enhanced counternarcotics operations, with international support, in the Caribbean and Central America that began April 1, 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns, paralysis of global trade, and collapse of global oil prices are further aggravating the crisis in Venezuela. It is unclear how long the Maduro regime can cling to power given increased US and international pressure and this challenging operating environment for Venezuela. 

Available for download at https://dialogo-americas.com/application/files/Dialogo-2nd-2020-ES.pdf

The Use of Sanctions in the US Maximum Pressure Campaign against the Maduro Regime in Venezuela

Publication Date:
August 2020
Language Availability:
English
Author:
Celina Realuyo
Published By:
Foro Cubano: Revisa de Divulgación

Available for download at https://www.programacuba.com/the-use-of-sanctions-in-the-us-maxi

Countering the Evolving Drug Trade in the Americas

Publication Date:
January 16, 2020
Language Availability:
English
Author:
Celina Realuyo
Published By:
The Wilson Center

Available for download at https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/countering-the-evolving-drug-trade-the-americas

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